Historic air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study.

TitleHistoric air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsHansell A, Ghosh RE, Blangiardo M, Perkins C, Vienneau D, Goffe K, Briggs D, Gulliver J
JournalThorax
Volume71
Issue4
Pagination330-8
Date Published2016 Apr
ISSN1468-3296
KeywordsAir Pollution, England, Environmental Exposure, History, 20th Century, History, 21st Century, Humans, Longitudinal Studies, Oxides, Particulate Matter, Prospective Studies, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Risk Factors, Smoke, Sulfur Compounds, Time Factors, Wales
Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Long-term air pollution exposure contributes to mortality but there are few studies examining effects of very long-term (>25 years) exposures.

METHODS: This study investigated modelled air pollution concentrations at residence for 1971, 1981, 1991 (black smoke (BS) and SO2) and 2001 (PM10) in relation to mortality up to 2009 in 367,658 members of the longitudinal survey, a 1% sample of the English Census. Outcomes were all-cause (excluding accidents), cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory mortality.

RESULTS: BS and SO2 exposures remained associated with mortality decades after exposure-BS exposure in 1971 was significantly associated with all-cause (OR 1.02 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.04)) and respiratory (OR 1.05 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.09)) mortality in 2002-2009 (ORs expressed per 10 μg/m(3)). Largest effect sizes were seen for more recent exposures and for respiratory disease. PM10 exposure in 2001 was associated with all outcomes in 2002-2009 with stronger associations for respiratory (OR 1.22 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.44)) than CV mortality (OR 1.12 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.25)). Adjusting PM10 for past BS and SO2 exposures in 1971, 1981 and 1991 reduced the all-cause OR to 1.16 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.26) while CV and respiratory associations lost significance, suggesting confounding by past air pollution exposure, but there was no evidence for effect modification. Limitations include limited information on confounding by smoking and exposure misclassification of historic exposures.

CONCLUSIONS: This large national study suggests that air pollution exposure has long-term effects on mortality that persist decades after exposure, and that historic air pollution exposures influence current estimates of associations between air pollution and mortality.

DOI10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207111
Alternate JournalThorax
PubMed ID26856365
PubMed Central IDPMC4819629
Grant ListMR/L01341X/1 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
075883 / / Wellcome Trust / United Kingdom
/ / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom