|Title||Endocrine disruptors in the workplace, hair spray, folate supplementation, and risk of hypospadias: case-control study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2009|
|Authors||Ormond G, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Nelson P, Toledano MB, Iszatt N, Geneletti S, Elliott P|
|Journal||Environ Health Perspect|
|Keywords||Adolescent, Adult, Birth Weight, Case-Control Studies, Child, Cosmetics, Dietary Supplements, Endocrine Disruptors, England, Female, Folic Acid, Gestational Age, Humans, Hypospadias, Infant, Newborn, Male, Middle Aged, Occupational Exposure, Pregnancy, Socioeconomic Factors, Workplace, Young Adult|
BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is one of the most common urogenital congenital anomalies affecting baby boys. Prevalence estimates in Europe range from 4 to 24 per 10,000 births, depending on definition, with higher rates reported from the United States. Relatively little is known about potential risk factors, but a role for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to elucidate the risk of hypospadias associated with occupational exposure of the mother to endocrine-disruptor chemicals, use of folate supplementation during pregnancy, and vegetarianism. DESIGN: We designed a case-control study of 471 hypospadias cases referred to surgeons and 490 randomly selected birth controls, born 1 January 1997-30 September 1998 in southeast England. Telephone interviews of mothers elicited information on folate supplementation during pregnancy and vegetarianism. We used a job exposure matrix to classify occupational exposure. RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression analysis, there were increased risks for self-reported occupational exposure to hair spray [exposed vs. nonexposed, odds ratio (OR) = 2.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.40-4.17] and phthalate exposure obtained by a job exposure matrix (OR = 3.12; 95% CI, 1.04-11.46). There was a significantly reduced risk of hypospadias associated with of folate use during the first 3 months of pregnancy (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93). Vegetarianism was not associated with hypospadias risk. CONCLUSIONS: Excess risks of hypospadias associated with occupational exposures to phthalates and hair spray suggest that antiandrogenic EDCs may play a role in hypospadias. Folate supplementation in early pregnancy may be protective.
|Alternate Journal||Environ. Health Perspect.|
Endocrine disruptors in the workplace, hair spray, folate supplementation, and risk of hypospadias: case-control study.